SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2016
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Note 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 – SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include all of the accounts of Terra Tech. These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-K and Regulation S-X. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included.
Certain amounts reported in prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current presentation.
Non-controlling interest is shown as a component of shareholders’ equity on the consolidated balance sheets and the share of income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest is shown as a component of income (loss) in the consolidated statements of operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
The Company reviews all outstanding accounts receivable for collectability on a quarterly basis. An allowance for doubtful accounts is recorded for any amounts deemed uncollectable. The Company does not accrue interest receivable on past due accounts receivable. There was an allowance of $0 and $184,642 at December 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively. The allowance decreased from $184,642 as of December 31, 2015 to $0 at December 31, 2016 due to write-offs of accounts receivable totaling $159,169 and payments on allowed for accounts receivable totaling $25,473.
We value our inventory at the lower of the actual cost of our inventory, as determined using the first-in, first-out method, or its current estimated market value. We periodically review our physical inventory for excess, obsolete, and potentially impaired items and reserve accordingly. Our reserve estimate for excess and obsolete is based on expected future use. Our reserve estimates have historically been consistent with our actual experience as evidenced by actual sale or disposal of the goods.
Property, Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The approximate useful lives for depreciation of our property, equipment and leasehold improvements are as follows: 32 years for buildings; three to eight years for furniture and equipment; and shorter of the estimated useful life or the underlying lease term for leasehold improvements.
Repairs and maintenance expenditures that do not extend the useful lives of related assets are expensed as incurred. For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, we have concluded that the sum of the undiscounted cash flows exceeds the carry amount of the assets.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition date fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business acquisition. Goodwill is not amortized for accounting purposes.
We review the goodwill allocated to each of our reporting units for possible impairment annually on August 1 and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate its carrying amount may not be recoverable. When assessing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then we perform a two-step impairment test. If, we conclude otherwise, then no further action is taken. We also have the option to bypass the qualitative assessment and only perform a quantitative assessment, which is the first step of the two-step impairment test. In the two-step impairment test, we measure the recoverability of goodwill by comparing a reporting unit’s carrying amount, including goodwill, to the estimated fair value of the reporting unit.
In assessing the qualitative factors, we assess relevant events and circumstances that may impact the fair value and the carrying amount of the reporting unit. The identification of relevant events and circumstances, and how these may impact a reporting unit’s fair value or carrying amount involve significant judgments and assumptions. The judgment and assumptions include the identification of macroeconomic conditions, industry, and market considerations, cost factors, overall financial performance and share price trends, and making the assessment as to whether each relevant factor will impact the impairment test positively or negatively and the magnitude of any such impact.
The carrying amount of each reporting unit is determined based upon the assignment of our assets and liabilities, including existing goodwill and other intangible assets, to the identified reporting units. Where an acquisition benefits only one reporting unit, we allocate, as of the acquisition date, all goodwill for that acquisition to the reporting unit that will benefit. Where we have had an acquisition that benefited more than one reporting unit, we have assigned the goodwill to our reporting units as of the acquisition date such that the goodwill assigned to a reporting unit is the excess of the fair value of the acquired business, or portion thereof, to be included in that reporting unit over the fair value of the individual assets acquired and liabilities assumed that are assigned to the reporting unit.
The estimated fair value of the reporting units is determined using the income approach. The income approach focuses on the income-producing capability of an asset, measuring the current value of the asset by calculating the present value of its future economic benefits such as cash earnings, cost savings, tax deductions, and proceeds from disposition. Value indications are developed by discounting expected cash flows to their present value at a rate of return that incorporates the risk-free rate for the use of funds, the expected rate of inflation, and risks associated with the particular investment. Cash flow projections are based on management’s estimates of revenue growth rates and operating margins, taking into consideration industry and market conditions. The discount rate used is based on the weighted-average cost of capital adjusted for the relevant risk associated with business-specific characteristics and the uncertainty related to the business’s ability to execute on the projected cash flows.
In order to assess the reasonableness of the calculated fair values of its reporting units, we compare the sum of the reporting units’ fair values to our market capitalization and calculate an implied control premium (the excess of the sum of the reporting units’ fair values over the market capitalization). We evaluate the reasonableness of the premium over market capitalization by first quantifying certain controlling market participants’ synergies included in the income approach. We then supplement this step by comparing the implied premiums for each reporting unit to the premiums implied by recent comparable transactions. If the implied control premium is not reasonable in light of these recent transactions, we will reevaluate our fair value estimates of the reporting units by adjusting the discount rates or other assumptions.
If the carrying amount of a reporting unit is in excess of its fair value, an impairment may exist, and we must perform the second step of the impairment analysis to measure the amount of the impairment loss, by allocating the reporting unit’s fair value to its assets and liabilities other than goodwill, comparing the carrying amount of the goodwill to the resulting implied fair value of the goodwill, and recording an impairment charge for any excess.
Intangible assets are stated at historical cost and amortized over their estimated useful lives. We use a straight-line method of amortization, unless a method that better reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible asset are consumed or otherwise used up can be reliably determined. The approximate useful lives for amortization of our intangible assets are as follows:
We review intangible assets subject to amortization quarterly to determine if any adverse conditions exist or a change in circumstances has occurred that would indicate impairment or a change in the remaining useful life. Conditions that may indicate impairment include, but are not limited to, a significant adverse change in legal factors or business climate that could affect the value of an asset, a product recall, or an adverse action or assessment by a regulator. If an impairment indicator exists, we test the intangible asset for recoverability. For purposes of the recoverability test, we group our amortizable intangible assets with other assets and liabilities at the lowest level of identifiable cash flows if the intangible asset does not generate cash flows independent of other assets and liabilities. If the carrying value of the intangible asset (asset group) exceeds the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the intangible asset (asset group), we will write the carrying value down to the fair value in the period identified.
We calculate fair value of our intangible assets as the present value of estimated future cash flows we expect to generate from the asset using a risk-adjusted discount rate. In determining our estimated future cash flows associated with our intangible assets, we use estimates and assumptions about future revenue contributions, cost structures and remaining useful lives of the asset (asset group).
Intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives are tested annually for impairment, and are tested for impairment more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We have adopted paragraph 360-10-35-17 of FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) for our long-lived assets. Our long -lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of our long-lived assets by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related long-lived asset or group of assets over their remaining estimated useful lives against their respective carrying amounts. Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets. Fair value is generally determined using the assets expected future discounted cash flows or market value, if readily determinable. If long-lived assets are determined to be recoverable, but the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the net book values of the long-lived assets are depreciated over the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives.
We consider the following to be some examples of important indicators that may trigger an impairment review: (i) significant under-performance or losses of assets relative to expected historical or projected future operating results; (ii) significant changes in the manner or use of assets or in our overall strategy with respect to the manner of use of the acquired assets or changes in our overall business strategy; (iii) significant negative industry or economic trends; (iv) increased competitive pressures; (v) a significant decline in our stock price for a sustained period of time; and (vi) regulatory changes. We evaluate acquired assets for potential impairment indicators at least annually and more frequently upon the occurrence of such events. The impairment charges, if any, are included in operating expenses in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Based on the test results, no impairments have occurred.
Deposits are security deposits for leased properties in California, Nevada and New Jersey. The deposits will be returned at the end of the lease term.
We recognize revenue from product sales net of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments, and estimated returns and upon transfer of title and risk to the customer, which occurs at shipping (F.O.B. terms). Upon shipment, we have no further performance obligations, selling price is fixed, and collection is reasonably assured.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC 605, “Revenue Recognition,” by recognizing as revenue the fees we charge customers because persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the fees we charge are substantially fixed or determinable during the period that we provide the goods or services, we and our customers understand the specific nature and terms of the agreed upon transactions, and payment is made for the goods or services when they have been rendered.
Revenue is recognized net of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments, and returns, and net of taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities, with the collected taxes recorded as current liabilities until remitted to the relevant government authority. Revenue is recorded upon transfer of title and risk to the customer which occurs at the time customers take delivery of our products at our retail dispensary. Upon purchase, we have no further performance obligations and collection is assured as sales are paid for at time of purchase.
Revenue related to the sale of consignment inventory is not recognized until the product is pulled from inventory and sold directly to end-customers. We recognize revenue from the sale of consignment inventory on a gross basis, as we have determined that: 1) we are the primary obligor to the customer; 2) we have latitude in establishing the sales prices and profit margins of our products; 3) we have discretion in selecting our suppliers; 4) we are responsible for loss or damage to consigned inventory; and 5) our customer validation process performs an important part of the process of providing such products to authorized customers. We believe that these factors outweigh the fact that we do not have title to the consigned inventory prior to its sale.
During the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, sales returns were not significant and, as such, no sales return allowance has been recorded as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
We recognize revenue from products grown in our greenhouses and sold net of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments, and estimated returns and upon transfer of title and risk to the customer, which occurs at shipping (F.O.B. terms). Upon shipment, we have no further performance obligations, selling price is fixed, and collection is reasonably assured.
For sales for which we use an outside grower, we evaluate whether it is appropriate to record the gross amount of product sales and related costs or the net amount earned as commissions. We determine the product specifications, cultivation, and packaging, while disclosing trade and operational secrets, greenhouse technologies, and nutrients used to grow. We are the primary obligor in the transaction because it is our brand that is sold into the retail channel. We are subject to inventory risk until product is accepted by the retailer. We bear credit risk for the amount billed to the retailer and, thus, must pay the grower in the event the selling price is not collected. This revenue is recorded at the gross sale price once the retailer has accepted delivery, selling price is fixed, and collection is reasonably assured. For the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, the Company had such sales of $7,649,125, $6,166,927 and $2,581,983, respectively.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods sold includes the costs directly attributable to product sales and includes amounts paid for finished goods, such as flower, edibles, and concentrates, as well as, packaging and other supplies, fees for services and processing, other expenses for services, and allocated overhead. Overhead expenses include allocations of rent, administrative salaries, utilities, and related costs. It also includes the cost incurred in producing the oils, waxes, shatters, and clears sold by IVXX.
Cost of goods sold are for the plants grown and purchased and sold into the retail marketplace by Edible Garden.
Loyalty Rewards Program
We offer a customer loyalty rewards program that allows members to earn discounts on future purchases. Unused discounts earned by our loyalty rewards program members are included in accrued liabilities and recorded as a reduction of revenue at the time a qualifying purchase is made. Revenue is recognized when points are redeemed by the loyalty rewards program member. The loyalty rewards program was part of the acquisition of Black Oak, who began offering customers the loyalty rewards program in April 2015. The value of points accrued as of December 31, 2016 was $21,627.
The Company accounts for its stock-based awards in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification subtopic 718-10, “Compensation,” which requires fair value measurement on the grant date and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors, including restricted stock awards. For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value using a closed option valuation (Black-Scholes) model. The fair value of restricted stock awards is based upon the quoted market price of the common shares on the date of grant. The fair value is then expensed over the requisite service periods of the awards, net of estimated forfeitures, which is generally the performance period and the related amount is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations. Stock-based compensation expense and the unvested balance of stock compensation expense was immaterial as of and for the year ended December 31, 2016.
ASC 815-40, “Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASC 815-40”), requires freestanding contracts that are settled in a company’s own stock, including common stock warrants, to be designated as an equity instrument, asset or a liability. Under the provisions of ASC 815-40, a contract designated as an asset or a liability must be carried at fair value on a company’s balance sheet, with any changes in fair value recorded in the company’s results of operations. A contract designated as an equity instrument must be included within equity, and no fair value adjustments are required from period to period.
ASC 815, “Derivatives and Hedging” (“ASC 815”) requires all derivatives to be recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. Furthermore, ASC 815 precludes contracts issued or held by a reporting entity that are both (1) indexed to its own stock and (2) classified as stockholders’ equity in its statement of financial position from being treated as derivative instruments.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
We provide for income taxes based on enacted tax law and statutory tax rates at which items of income and expenses are expected to be settled in our income tax return. Certain items of revenue and expense are reported for Federal income tax purposes in different periods than for financial reporting purposes, thereby resulting in deferred income taxes. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. We have incurred net operating losses for financial-reporting and tax-reporting purposes. Accordingly, for Federal and state income tax purposes, the benefit for income taxes has been offset entirely by a valuation allowance against the related Federal and state deferred tax asset for the year ended December 31, 2016.
The Company recognizes uncertain tax positions based on a benefit recognition model. Provided that the tax position is deemed more likely than not of being sustained, the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being ultimately realized upon settlement. The tax position is derecognized when it is no longer more likely than not of being sustained. The Company classifies income tax related interest and penalties as interest expense and selling, general, and administrative expense, respectively, on the Consolidated Statement of Operations.
Loss Per Common Share
Net loss per share is computed in accordance with the provisions of ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share,” by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding during the period. During a loss period, the effect of the potential exercise of stock options, warrants, convertible preferred stock, and convertible debt are not considered in the diluted loss per share calculation since the effect would be anti-dilutive. The results of operations were a net loss for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014. Therefore, the basic and diluted weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding were the same for all years.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
We apply fair value accounting for all financial assets and liabilities and non-financial assets and liabilities that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis. We define fair value as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities, which are required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as risks inherent in valuation techniques, transfer restrictions and credit risk. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 – Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 – Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 – Inputs that are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
In accordance with the fair value accounting requirements, companies may choose to measure eligible financial instruments and certain other items at fair value. We have not elected the fair value option for any eligible financial instruments.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory – In October 2016, the FASB issued guidance that requires the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory to be recognized when the transfer occurs instead of when the asset is sold to an outside party. The new guidance is effective beginning with the first quarter of the Company’s 2019 fiscal year (with early adoption permitted as of the beginning of an annual period). The guidance is required to be adopted retrospectively by recording a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the adoption period. The Company is assessing the potential impact this guidance will have on its financial statements.
Stock Compensation - Employee Share-Based Payments – In March 2016, the FASB issued guidance to amend certain aspects of accounting for employee share-based awards, including accounting for income taxes related to those transactions. This guidance will require recognizing excess tax benefits and deficiencies (that result from an increase or decrease in the fair value of an award from grant date to the vesting date or exercise date) on share-based compensation arrangements in the tax provision, instead of in equity as under the current guidance. In addition, these amounts will be classified as an operating activity in the statement of cash flows, instead of as a financing activity. In addition, cash paid for shares withheld to satisfy employee taxes will be classified as a financing activity, instead of as an operating activity. The guidance is effective beginning in the first quarter of the Company’s 2018 fiscal year (with early adoption permitted) and is required to be adopted as follows:
Leases – In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)” (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 requires entities to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for the rights and obligations created by all leases, including operating leases, with terms of more than 12 months. The new standard also requires additional disclosures on the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. These disclosures include qualitative and quantitative information. The new standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes – In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes” (“ASU 2015-17”). ASU 2015-17 requires entities to present deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities as noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. The new standard is effective for public entities for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, with early adoption allowed on either a prospective or retrospective basis. The Company adopted ASU 2015-17, on a prospective basis, for its annual period ended December 31, 2015. Accordingly, the accompanying consolidated balance sheets at December 31, 2016 and 2015 reflect the presentation of deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities in accordance with ASU 2015-17.
Inventory Measurement – In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, “Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory” (“ASU 2015-11”), which requires entities to measure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value (“NRV”). ASU 2015-11 defines NRV as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. The ASU will not apply to inventories that are measured by using either the last-in, first-out method or the retail inventory method. The guidance in ASU 2015-11 is effective prospectively for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. Upon transition, entities must disclose the nature of and reason for the accounting change. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
Going Concern Disclosures – In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, “Disclosure of Uncertainties About an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern” (“ASU 2014-15”). ASU 2014-15 requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued and provides guidance on determining when and how to disclose going concern uncertainties in the financial statements. Certain disclosures will be required if conditions give rise to substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. ASU 2014-15 is effective for annual and interim reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016, with early adoption permitted. The Company’s adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef