SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2017
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Note 2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three months ended March 31, 2017 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2017.
The consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2016 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements at that date but does not include all of the information and footnotes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements. For further information, refer to the consolidated financial statements and footnotes thereto included in Terra Techs annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2016.
Non-controlling interest is shown as a component of shareholders equity on the consolidated balance sheets and the share of income (loss) attributable to non-controlling interest is shown as a component of income (loss) in the consolidated statements of operations.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with United States generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
We value our inventory at the lower of the actual cost of our inventory, as determined using the first-in, first-out method, or its current estimated net realizable value (NRV). ASU No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory, defines NRV as the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. We periodically review our physical inventory for excess, obsolete, and potentially impaired items and reserve accordingly. Our reserve estimate for excess and obsolete is based on expected future use. Our reserve estimates have historically been consistent with our actual experience as evidenced by actual sale or disposal of the goods.
Property, Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Property, equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets. The approximate useful lives for depreciation of our property, equipment and leasehold improvements are as follows: 32 years for buildings; three to eight years for furniture and equipment; and the shorter of the estimated useful life or the underlying lease term for leasehold improvements. Repairs and maintenance expenditures that do not extend the useful lives of related assets are expensed as incurred.
Goodwill is measured as the excess of consideration transferred and the net of the acquisition date fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business acquisition. Goodwill is not amortized for accounting purposes.
We review the goodwill allocated to each of our reporting units for possible impairment annually on August 1 and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate its carrying amount may not be recoverable. When assessing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to first assess qualitative factors to determine whether the existence of events or circumstances leads to a determination that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then we perform a two-step impairment test. If we conclude otherwise, then no further action is taken. We also have the option to bypass the qualitative assessment and only perform a quantitative assessment, which is the first step of the two-step impairment test. In the two-step impairment test, we measure the recoverability of goodwill by comparing a reporting units carrying amount, including goodwill, to the estimated fair value of the reporting unit.
Intangible assets are stated at historical cost and amortized over their estimated useful lives. We use a straight-line method of amortization, unless a method that better reflects the pattern in which the economic benefits of the intangible asset are consumed or otherwise used up can be reliably determined. The approximate useful lives for amortization of our intangible assets are as follows:
We review intangible assets subject to amortization quarterly to determine if any adverse conditions exist or a change in circumstances has occurred that would indicate impairment or a change in the remaining useful life. Intangible assets that have indefinite useful lives are tested annually for impairment, and are tested for impairment more frequently if events and circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We have adopted paragraph 360-10-35-17 of FASB Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) for our long-lived assets. Our long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. We assess the recoverability of our long-lived assets by comparing the projected undiscounted net cash flows associated with the related long-lived asset or group of assets over their remaining estimated useful lives against their respective carrying amounts. Impairment, if any, is based on the excess of the carrying amount over the fair value of those assets. Fair value is generally determined using the assets expected future discounted cash flows or market value, if readily determinable. If long-lived assets are determined to be recoverable, but the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the net book values of the long-lived assets are depreciated over the newly determined remaining estimated useful lives.
Other assets are comprised primarily of security deposits for leased properties in California, Nevada and New Jersey. The deposits will be returned at the end of the lease term.
We recognize revenue in accordance with ASC 605, Revenue Recognition, by recognizing as revenue the fees we charge customers because persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the fees we charge are substantially fixed or determinable during the period that we provide the goods or services, we and our customers understand the specific nature and terms of the agreed upon transactions, and payment is made for the goods or services when they have been rendered.
Cannabis Dispensary, Cultivation and Production
We recognize revenue from manufacturing and distribution product sales and upon transfer of title and risk to the customer, which occurs either at shipping (F.O.B. terms) or upon sell through depending on the arrangement.
Revenue from our retail dispensaries is recognized net of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments and returns, and net of taxes collected from customers that are remitted to governmental authorities, with the collected taxes recorded as current liabilities until remitted to the relevant government authority. Revenue is recorded upon transfer of title and risk to the customer which occurs at the time customers take delivery of our products at our retail dispensaries. Upon purchase, we have no further performance obligations and collection is assured as sales are paid for at time of purchase.
Revenue related to the sale of consignment inventory is not recognized until the product is pulled from inventory and sold directly to end-customers. We recognize revenue from the sale of consignment inventory on a gross basis, as we have determined that: 1) we are the primary obligor to the customer; 2) we have latitude in establishing the sales prices and profit margins of our products; 3) we have discretion in selecting our suppliers; 4) we are responsible for loss or damage to consigned inventory; and 5) our customer validation process performs an important part of the process of providing such products to authorized customers. We believe that these factors outweigh the fact that we do not have title to the consigned inventory prior to its sale.
Herbs and Produce Products
We recognize revenue from products grown in our greenhouses and sold net of discounts, rebates, promotional adjustments, price adjustments, and estimated returns and upon transfer of title and risk to the customer, which occurs at shipping (F.O.B. terms). Upon shipment, we have no further performance obligations, selling price is fixed, and collection is reasonably assured.
Cost of Goods Sold
Cannabis Dispensary, Cultivation and Production
Cost of goods sold includes the costs directly attributable to product sales and includes amounts paid for finished goods, such as flower, edibles, and concentrates, as well as packaging and other supplies, fees for services and processing, other expenses for services, and allocated overhead. Overhead expenses include allocations of rent, administrative salaries, utilities, and related costs. It also includes the cost incurred in producing the oils, waxes, shatters, and clears sold by IVXX.
Herbs and Produce Products
Cost of goods sold are for the plants grown, packaging, other supplies and in addition to purchased plants which are sold into the retail marketplace by Edible Garden. Other expenses include freight, allocations of rent, utilities and repairs and maintenance.
The Company accounts for its stock-based awards in accordance with ASC subtopic 718-10, Compensation, which requires fair value measurement on the grant date and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors, including restricted stock awards. For stock options, the Company estimates the fair value using a closed option valuation (Black-Scholes) model. The fair value of restricted stock awards is based upon the quoted market price of the common shares on the date of grant. The fair value is then expensed over the requisite service periods of the awards, net of estimated forfeitures, which is generally the performance period and the related amount is recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
ASC 815-40, Contracts in Entitys Own Equity (ASC 815-40), requires freestanding contracts that are settled in a companys own stock, including common stock warrants, to be designated as an equity instrument, asset or a liability. Under the provisions of ASC 815-40, a contract designated as an asset or a liability must be carried at fair value on a companys balance sheet, with any changes in fair value recorded in the companys results of operations. A contract designated as an equity instrument must be included within equity, and no fair value adjustments are required from period to period.
ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging (ASC 815) requires all derivatives to be recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. Furthermore, ASC 815 precludes contracts issued or held by a reporting entity that are both (1) indexed to its own stock and (2) classified as stockholders equity in its statement of financial position from being treated as derivative instruments.
Research and Development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
We provide for income taxes based on enacted tax law and statutory tax rates at which items of income and expense are expected to be settled in our income tax return. Certain items of revenue and expense are reported for Federal income tax purposes in different periods than for financial reporting purposes, thereby resulting in deferred income taxes. Deferred taxes are also recognized for operating losses that are available to offset future taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. We have incurred net operating losses for financial-reporting and tax-reporting purposes. At March 31, 2017 and December 31, 2016, such net operating losses were offset entirely by a valuation allowance.
The Company recognizes uncertain tax positions based on a benefit recognition model. Provided that the tax position is deemed more likely than not of being sustained, the Company recognizes the largest amount of tax benefit that is greater than 50% likely of being ultimately realized upon settlement. The tax position is derecognized when it is no longer more likely than not of being sustained. The Company classifies income tax related interest and penalties as interest expense and selling, general and administrative expense, respectively, on the consolidated statements of operations.
Loss Per Common Share
Net loss per share is computed in accordance with the provisions of ASC 260, Earnings Per Share, by dividing net loss by the weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding during the period. During a loss period, the effect of the potential exercise of stock options, warrants, convertible preferred stock, and convertible debt are not considered in the diluted loss per share calculation since the effect would be anti-dilutive. The results of operations were a net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2017 and 2016. Therefore, the basic and diluted weighted-average shares of common stock outstanding were the same for both periods.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
We define fair value as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. When determining the fair value measurements for assets and liabilities which are required to be recorded at fair value, we consider the principal or most advantageous market in which we would transact and the market-based risk measurements or assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, such as risks inherent in valuation techniques, transfer restrictions and credit risk. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 Observable inputs other than quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets, or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.
Level 3 Inputs that are generally unobservable and typically reflect managements estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
In accordance with the fair value accounting requirements, companies may choose to measure eligible financial instruments and certain other items at fair value. We have not elected the fair value option for any eligible financial instruments.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
FASB ASU 2017-04 (Topic 350), Intangibles - Goodwill and Others Issued in January 2017, ASU 2017-04 simplifies how an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting units goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. ASU 2017-04 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 including interim periods within those periods. We are currently evaluating the effect that ASU 2017-04 will have on our consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
FASB ASU No. 2016-02 (Topic 842), Leases Issued in February 2016, ASU No. 2016-02 will require entities to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet for the rights and obligations created by all leases, including operating leases, with terms of more than 12 months. The new standard also requires additional disclosures on the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. These disclosures include qualitative and quantitative information. The new standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is in the process of evaluating the impact the adoption of this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
FASB ASU No. 2014-09 (Topic 606), Revenue from Contracts with Customers Issued in May 2014, ASU 2014-09 will require an entity to recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers using a five-step model that requires entities to exercise judgment when considering the terms of the contracts. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date. This amendment defers the effective date of ASU 2014-09 by one year. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016- 08, Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Gross versus Net), which amends the principal versus agent guidance and clarifies that the analysis must focus on whether the entity has control of the goods or services before they are transferred to the customer. In addition, the FASB issued ASU Nos. 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers and 2016-12, Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, both of which provide additional clarification of certain provisions in Topic 606. These Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) updates are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, but early adoption is permitted. Early adoption is permitted only as of annual reporting periods after December 15, 2016. The standard permits the use of either the retrospective or retrospectively with the cumulative effect transition method. We are currently in the process of evaluating all revenue streams, accounting policies, practices and reporting to identify and understand any impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef